A right-angled triangle is one in which two of the sides are at a right angle one to the other. Figure 61 represents a right-angled triangle, A and B forming a right angle. The side opposite, as C, is called the hypothenuse. The other sides, A and B, are called respectively the base and the perpendicular.
An acute-angled triangle has all its angles acute, as in Figure 63.
An obtuse-angled triangle has one obtuse angle, as A, Figure 62.
When all the sides of a triangle are equal in length and the angles are all equal, as in Figure 63, it is termed an equilateral triangle, and either of its sides may be called the base. When two only of the sides and two only of the angles are equal, as in Figure 64, it is termed an isosceles triangle, and the side that is unequal, as A in the figure, is termed the base.
When all the sides and angles are unequal, as in Figure 65, it is termed a scalene triangle, and either of its sides may be called the base.
The angle opposite the base of a triangle is called the vertex.
A figure that is bounded by four straight lines is termed a quadrangle, quadrilateral or tetragon. When opposite sides of the figure are parallel to each other it is termed a parallelogram, no matter what the angle of the adjoining lines in the figure may be. When all the angles are right angles, as in Figure 66, the figure is called a rectangle. If the sides of a rectangle are of equal length, as in Figure 67, the figure is called a square. If two of the parallel sides of a rectangle are longer than the other two sides, as in Figure 66, it is called an oblong. If the length of the sides of a parallelogram are all equal and the angles are not right angles, as in Figure 68, it is called a rhomb, rhombus or diamond. If two of the parallel sides of a parallelogram are longer than the other two, and the angles are not right angles, as in Figure 69, it is called a rhomboid. If two of the parallel sides of a quadrilateral are of unequal lengths and the angles of the other two sides are not equal, as in Figure 70, it is termed a trapezoid.
Fig. 69. |
Fig. 70. |
Fig. 71. |
If none of the sides of a quadrangle are parallel, as in Figure 71, it is termed a trapezium.