Although in workshop drawings, line-shading is rarely employed, yet where a design rather than the particular details of construction is to be shown, line-shading is a valuable accessory. Figure 295, for example, is intended to show an arrangement of idle pulleys to guide belts from one pulley to another; the principle being that so long as the belt passes to a pulley moving in line with the line of rotation of the pulley, the belt will run correctly, although it may leave the pulley
It will be observed that by the line-shading even the twist of the belt is much more clearly shown than it would be if left unshaded.
An excellent example of shading is given in Figure 296, which is extracted from the American Machinist, and represents a cutting tool for a planing machine. The figure is from a wood engraving, but the effect may be produced by lines, the black parts being considered as simply broad black lines.
The drawings from which engravings are made are drawn to conform to the process by which the engraving is to be produced. Drawings that are shaded by plain lines may be engraved by three methods. First, the drawing may be photo-engraved, in which process the drawing is photographed on the metal, and every line appears in the engraving precisely as it appears in the drawing.
For this kind of engraving the drawing may be made of any convenient size that is larger than the size of engraving to be produced, the reduction of size being produced in the photographing process. Drawings for photo-engraving require to have the lines jet black, and it is to be remembered that if red centrelines are marked on the drawing, they will be produced as ordinary black lines in the engraving.
The shading on a drawing to be photo-engraved must be produced by lines, and not by tints, for tints, whether of black or of colors, will not photo-engrave properly.
It is generally preferred to make the drawing for a photo-engraving larger than the engraving that is to be made from it, a good proportion being to make the drawing twice the length the engraving is to be. This serves to reduce the magnitude of any roughness in the lines of the drawing, and, therefore, to make the engraving better than the drawing.
The thickness of the lines in the drawing should be made to suit the amount of reduction to be made, because the lines are reduced in thickness in the same proportion as the engraving is reduced from the drawing. Thus the lines on an engraving reduced to one-half the dimensions of the drawing would be one-half as thick as the lines on the drawing.
Drawings for photo-engraving should be made on smooth-faced paper; as, for example, on Bristol board; and to make the lines clean and clear, the drawing instruments should be in the best of condition, and the paper or Bristol board quite dry. The India rubber should be used as little as possible on drawings to be photo-engraved, because, if used before the lines are inked in, it roughens the surface of the paper, and the inking lines will be less smooth and even at their edges; and for this reason it is better not to rub out any lines until all the lines have been inked in. If used to excess after the lines have been inked in it serves to reduce the blackness of the lines, and may so pale them that they will not properly photo-engrave.
To make a drawing for an engraver in wood it would be drawn directly on the face of the box-wood block, on which it is to be engraved. The surface of the block is first whitened by a white water color, as Chinese white. If the drawing that is to be used as a copy is on sufficiently thin paper, its outline may be traced over by pencil lines, and the copy may then be laid face down on the wood block and its edges held to the block by wax, the pencilled lines being face to the block. The outline may then be again traced over with a pencil or pointed instrument, causing the imprint of the lead pencil lines to be left on the whitened surface of the block. If the copy is on paper too thick to be thus employed, a tracing may be made and used as above; it being borne in mind that the tracing must be laid with the pencilled lines on the block, because what is the right hand of the drawing on the block is the left hand in the print it gives. The shading on wood blocks is given by tints of India ink aided by pencilled lines, or of course pencilled lines only may for less artistic work be used. Another method is to photograph the drawing direct upon the surface of the wood block; it is unnecessary, however, to enter into this part of the subject.
The third method of producing an engraving from a drawing is by means of what is known as the wax process. Drawings for this process should be made on thin paper, for the following reasons: The process consists, briefly stated, in coating a copper plate with a layer of wax about 1/32 inch deep, and in drawing upon the wax the lines to compose the engraving, which lines are produced by means of tools that remove the wax down to the surface of the copper.
The plate and wax are then placed in a battery and a deposit of copper fills in the lines and surface of the wax, thus forming the engraving. Now if the drawing is made on thin paper, the engraver coats the surface of the drawing with a dry red pigment, and with a pointed instrument traces over the lines of the drawing, which causes them to leave a red imprint on the surface of the wax, and after the drawing is removed the engraver cuts these imprinted lines in the wax. If the drawing is on thick paper, this method of transferring the drawing to the wax cannot be used, and the engraver may take a tracing from the drawing and transfer from the tracing to the wax. It is obvious, also, that for wax engravings the drawing should be made of the same size that the engraving is required to be, or otherwise the tracing process described cannot be used. Figure 297 represents an engraving made by the wax process from a print from a wood engraving, and it is obvious that since all the lines drawn on the wax sink down to the surface of the copper plate, the shading is virtually composed of lines, the black surfaces being where the lines have been sufficiently close together and broad to remove all the wax enclosed within those surfaces.
The wax process is, however, more suitable for engravings in plain outline only, and is especially excellent when the parts are small and the lines fall close together; as, for example, in Figures 298 and 299, which are engravings of a boiler drilling machine, and were produced for the American Machinist by tracing over a wood engraving from London, "Engineering" in the manner already described. The fineness and cleanness of the lines in the wax process is here well illustrated, the disposition of the parts being easily seen from the engraving, and easily followed in connection with the following description:
The machine consists of two horizontal bed-plates A 1 and A 2, made with V slides on top, and placed at right angles to each other. Upon each of the bed-plates is fitted a vertical arm B 1 and B 2, each of which carries two saddles, C 1 and C 2, these being each adjustable vertically on its respective arm by means of rack and pinion and hand wheels D 1 and D 2. The saddles are balanced so that the least possible exertion is sufficient to adjust them. The vertical arms, B 1 and B 2, are cast each with a round foot by which the arms are attached to the square boxes E 1 and E 2, which are fitted to the V slides on the horizontal beds A 1 and A 2, and are adjustable thereon by means of screw and ratchet motion F 1 and F 2. Each of the square boxes has cast on it a small arm G 1 and G 2, carrying studs upon which run pinions gearing into the circular racks at the foot of the vertical arms. The square boxes have each a circular groove turned in the top to receive the bolts by which the vertical arms are connected to them, and thus the vertical arms, and with them the drill spindles N 1 and N 2, are adjustable radially with the boiler—the adjustment being effected by means of the pinions and circular racks. The pinions are arranged so that they can be worked with the same screw key that is used for the bolts in the circular grooves.
The shell to be drilled is placed upon the circular table H, which is carried by suitable framework adjustable by means of screw on a V slide I, placed at an angle of 45° with the horizontal bed-plates. By this arrangement, when the table is moved along I, it will approach to or recede from all the drills equally. J 1 and J 2 are girders forming additional bearings for the framework of the table. The bed-plates and slides for the table are bolted and braced together, making the whole machine very firm and rigid. Power is applied to the machine through the cones K 1 and K 2, working the horizontal and vertical shafts L 1 and L 2, etc. On the vertical shafts are fitted coarse pitch worms sliding on feather keys, and carried with the saddles C 1 and C 2, etc. The worms gearing with the worm wheels M 1 and M 2 are fitted on the sleeves of the steel spindles N 1 and N 2. The spindles are fitted with self-acting motions O 1 and O 2, which are easily thrown in and out of gear.
The machine is also used for turning the edge of the flanges which some makers prefer to have on the end plates of marine boilers. The plates are very readily fixed to the circular table H, and the edge of the flange trued up much quicker than by the ordinary means of chipping. When the machine is used for this purpose, the cross beam P, which is removable, is fastened to the two upright brackets R 1 and R 2. The cross beam is cast with V slides at one side for a little more than half its length from one end, and on the opposite side for the same length, but from the opposite end. The V slides are each fitted with a tool box S 1 and S 2, having a screw adjustment for setting the tool to the depth of cut, and adjustable on the V slides of the cross beam to the diameter of the plate to be turned. This arrangement of the machine is also used for cutting out the furnace mouths in the boiler ends. The plate is fastened to the circular table, the centre of the hole to be cut out being placed over the centre of table; one or both of the tool boxes may be used. There is sufficient space between the upright brackets R 1 and R 2, to allow that section of a boiler end which contains the furnace mouths to revolve while the holes are being cut out; the plate belonging to the end of a boiler of the largest diameter that the machine will take in for drilling. The holes cut out will be from 2 feet 3 inches in diameter and upwards. Power for using the turntable is applied through the cone T. The bevel wheels, worms, worm wheels, and pinions for driving the tables are of cast steel, which is necessary for the rough work of turning the flanges.
As to the practical results of using the machine, the drills are driven at a speed of 340 feet per minute at the cutting edges. A jet of soapsuds plays on each drill from an orifice 1/32 in. in diameter, and at a pressure of 60 lbs. per square inch. A joint composed of two 1-inch plates, and having holes 1 and one-eighth in. in diameter, can be drilled in about 2-1/2 minutes, and allowing about half a minute for adjusting the drill, each drill will do about 20 holes per hour. The machine is designed to stand any amount of work that the drills will bear. The time required for putting on the end of a boiler and turning the flange thereon (say 14 feet diameter) is about 2-1/2 hours; much, however, depends on the state of the flanges, as sometimes they are very rough, while at others very little is necessary to true them up. The time required for putting on the plate containing the furnace mouths and cutting out three holes 2 feet 6 in. in diameter, the plate being 1 and one-eighth in. thick, is three hours. Of course, if several boilers of one size are being made at the same time, the holes in two or more of these plates can be cut out at once. The machine is of such design that it can be placed with one of the horizontal bed-plates (say A 1), parallel and close up to a wall of the boiler shop; and when the turning apparatus is being used, the vertical arm B 2 can be swiveled half way round on its square box E 2, and used for drilling and tapping the stay holes in marine boiler ends after they are put together; of course sufficient room must be left between bed-plate A 2, and the wall of boiler shop parallel with it, to allow for reception of the boiler to be operated upon.
It would obviously be quite difficult to draw such drawings as in Figures 298 and 299 on thin paper, so as to enable the drawing to be traced on the wax direct by the process before described, unless indeed the draftsman had considerable experience in fine work; hence, it is not uncommon to make the drawing large, and on ordinary drawing paper. The engraver then has the drawing photographed on the surface of the wax, and works to the photograph. The letters of reference in wax engravings are put in by impressing type in the wax, and in this connection it may be remarked that the letters I and O should not be used on drawings to be engraved by the wax process, unless they are situated outside the outlines of the drawing, because the I looks so much like part of a dotted line that it is often indistinguishable therefrom, while the O looks like a circle or an ellipse.