Figure 217 represents a simple example for practice, which the student may draw the size of the engraving, or he may draw it twice the size. It is a locomotive spring, composed of leaves or plates, held together by a central band.
Figure 218 is an example of a stuffing box and gland, supposed to stand vertical, hence the gland has an oil cup or receptacle.
In Figure 219 are working drawings of a coupling rod, with the dimensions and directions marked in.
It may be remarked, however, that the drawings of a workshop are, where large quantities of the same kind of work is done, varied in character to suit some special departments—that is to say, special extra drawings are made for these departments. In Figures 220 and 221 is a drawing of a connecting rod drawn, put together as it would be for the lathe, vise or erecting shop.
To the two views shown there would be necessary detail sketches of the set screws, gibbs, and keys, all the rest being shown; the necessary dimensions being, of course, marked on the general drawing and on the details.
In so simple a thing as a connecting rod, however, there would be no question as to how the parts go together; hence detail drawings of each separate piece would answer for the lathe or vise bands.
But in many cases this would not be the case, and the drawing would require to show the parts put together, and be accompanied with such detail sketches as might be necessary to show parts that could not be clearly defined in the general views.
The blacksmith, for example, is only concerned with the making of the separate pieces, and has no concern as to how the parts go together. Furthermore, there are parts and dimensions in the general drawing with which the blacksmith has nothing to do.
Thus the location and dimensions of the keyways, the dimensions of the brasses, and the location of the bolt holes, are matters that have no reference to the blacksmith's work, because the keyways, bolt holes, and set-screw holes would be cut out of the solid in the machine shop. It is customary, therefore, to send to the blacksmith shop drawings containing separate views of each piece drawn to the shape it is to be forged; and drawn full size, or else on a scale sufficiently large to make each part show clearly without close inspection, marking thereon the full sizes, and stating beneath the number of pieces of each detail. (As in Figure 222, which represents the iron work of the connecting rod in Figure 220). In some cases the finished sizes are marked, and it is left to the blacksmith's judgment how much to leave for the finishing. This is undesirable, because either the blacksmith is left to judge what parts are to be finished, or else there must be on the drawing instructions on this point, or else signs or symbols that are understood to convey the information. It is better, therefore, to make for the blacksmith a special sketch, and mark thereon the full-forged sizes, stating on the drawing that such is the case.
As to the material of which the pieces are to be made, the greater part of blacksmith work is made of wrought iron, and it is, therefore, unnecessary to write "wrought iron" beneath each piece. When the pieces are to be of steel, however, it should be marked on the drawing and beneath the piece. In special cases, as where the greater part of the work of the shop is of steel, the rule may, of course, be reversed, and the parts made of iron may be the ones marked, whereas when parts are sometimes of iron, and at others of steel, each piece should be marked.
As a general rule the blacksmith knows, from the custom of the shop or the nature of the work, what the quality or kind of iron is to be, and it is, therefore, only in exceptional cases that they need to be mentioned on the drawing. Thus in a carriage manufactory, Norway or Swede iron will be found, as well as the better grades of refined iron, but the blacksmith will know what iron to use, for certain parts, or the shop may be so regulated that the selection of the iron is not left to him. In marking the number of pieces required, it is better to use the word "thus" than the words "of this," or "off this," because it is shorter and more correct, for the forging is not taken off the drawing, nor is it of the same; the drawing gives the shape and the size, and the word "thus" conveys that idea better than "of," "off," or "like this."
In shops where there are many of the same pieces forged, the blacksmith is furnished with sheet-iron templates that he can lay directly upon the forging and test its dimensions at once, which is an excellent plan in large work. Such templates are, of course, made from the drawings, and it becomes a question as to whether their dimensions should be the forged or the finished ones. If they are the forged, they may cause trouble, because a forging may have a scant place that it is difficult for the blacksmith to bring up to the size of the template, and he is in doubt whether there is enough metal in the scant place to allow the job to clean up. It is better, therefore, to make them to finished sizes, so that he can see at once if the work will clean up, notwithstanding the scant place. This will lead to no errors in large work, because such work is marked out by lines, and the scant part will therefore be discovered by the machinist, who will line out the piece accordingly.
Figure 223 is a drawing of a locomotive frame, which the student may as well draw three or four times as large as the engraving, which brings us to the subject of enlarging or reducing scales.